Struct tokio::runtime::Runtime

source ·
pub struct Runtime { /* private fields */ }
Expand description

The Tokio runtime.

The runtime provides an I/O driver, task scheduler, timer, and blocking pool, necessary for running asynchronous tasks.

Instances of Runtime can be created using new, or Builder. However, most users will use the #[tokio::main] annotation on their entry point instead.

See module level documentation for more details.

Shutdown

Shutting down the runtime is done by dropping the value. The current thread will block until the shut down operation has completed.

  • Drain any scheduled work queues.
  • Drop any futures that have not yet completed.
  • Drop the reactor.

Once the reactor has dropped, any outstanding I/O resources bound to that reactor will no longer function. Calling any method on them will result in an error.

Sharing

The Tokio runtime implements Sync and Send to allow you to wrap it in a Arc. Most fn take &self to allow you to call them concurrently across multiple threads.

Calls to shutdown and shutdown_timeout require exclusive ownership of the runtime type and this can be achieved via Arc::try_unwrap when only one strong count reference is left over.

Implementations§

source§

impl Runtime

source

pub fn new() -> Result<Runtime>

Creates a new runtime instance with default configuration values.

This results in the multi threaded scheduler, I/O driver, and time driver being initialized.

Most applications will not need to call this function directly. Instead, they will use the #[tokio::main] attribute. When a more complex configuration is necessary, the runtime builder may be used.

See module level documentation for more details.

Examples

Creating a new Runtime with default configuration values.

use tokio::runtime::Runtime;

let rt = Runtime::new()
    .unwrap();

// Use the runtime...
source

pub fn handle(&self) -> &Handle

Returns a handle to the runtime’s spawner.

The returned handle can be used to spawn tasks that run on this runtime, and can be cloned to allow moving the Handle to other threads.

Calling Handle::block_on on a handle to a current_thread runtime is error-prone. Refer to the documentation of Handle::block_on for more.

Examples
use tokio::runtime::Runtime;

let rt = Runtime::new()
    .unwrap();

let handle = rt.handle();

// Use the handle...
source

pub fn spawn<F>(&self, future: F) -> JoinHandle<F::Output> where
    F: Future + Send + 'static,
    F::Output: Send + 'static,

Spawns a future onto the Tokio runtime.

This spawns the given future onto the runtime’s executor, usually a thread pool. The thread pool is then responsible for polling the future until it completes.

The provided future will start running in the background immediately when spawn is called, even if you don’t await the returned JoinHandle.

See module level documentation for more details.

Examples
use tokio::runtime::Runtime;

// Create the runtime
let rt = Runtime::new().unwrap();

// Spawn a future onto the runtime
rt.spawn(async {
    println!("now running on a worker thread");
});
source

pub fn spawn_blocking<F, R>(&self, func: F) -> JoinHandle<R> where
    F: FnOnce() -> R + Send + 'static,
    R: Send + 'static,

Runs the provided function on an executor dedicated to blocking operations.

Examples
use tokio::runtime::Runtime;

// Create the runtime
let rt = Runtime::new().unwrap();

// Spawn a blocking function onto the runtime
rt.spawn_blocking(|| {
    println!("now running on a worker thread");
});
source

pub fn block_on<F: Future>(&self, future: F) -> F::Output

Runs a future to completion on the Tokio runtime. This is the runtime’s entry point.

This runs the given future on the current thread, blocking until it is complete, and yielding its resolved result. Any tasks or timers which the future spawns internally will be executed on the runtime.

Multi thread scheduler

When the multi thread scheduler is used this will allow futures to run within the io driver and timer context of the overall runtime.

Any spawned tasks will continue running after block_on returns.

Current thread scheduler

When the current thread scheduler is enabled block_on can be called concurrently from multiple threads. The first call will take ownership of the io and timer drivers. This means other threads which do not own the drivers will hook into that one. When the first block_on completes, other threads will be able to “steal” the driver to allow continued execution of their futures.

Any spawned tasks will be suspended after block_on returns. Calling block_on again will resume previously spawned tasks.

Panics

This function panics if the provided future panics, or if called within an asynchronous execution context.

Examples
use tokio::runtime::Runtime;

// Create the runtime
let rt  = Runtime::new().unwrap();

// Execute the future, blocking the current thread until completion
rt.block_on(async {
    println!("hello");
});
source

pub fn enter(&self) -> EnterGuard<'_>

Enters the runtime context.

This allows you to construct types that must have an executor available on creation such as Sleep or TcpStream. It will also allow you to call methods such as tokio::spawn.

Example
use tokio::runtime::Runtime;

fn function_that_spawns(msg: String) {
    // Had we not used `rt.enter` below, this would panic.
    tokio::spawn(async move {
        println!("{}", msg);
    });
}

fn main() {
    let rt = Runtime::new().unwrap();

    let s = "Hello World!".to_string();

    // By entering the context, we tie `tokio::spawn` to this executor.
    let _guard = rt.enter();
    function_that_spawns(s);
}
source

pub fn shutdown_timeout(self, duration: Duration)

Shuts down the runtime, waiting for at most duration for all spawned task to shutdown.

Usually, dropping a Runtime handle is sufficient as tasks are able to shutdown in a timely fashion. However, dropping a Runtime will wait indefinitely for all tasks to terminate, and there are cases where a long blocking task has been spawned, which can block dropping Runtime.

In this case, calling shutdown_timeout with an explicit wait timeout can work. The shutdown_timeout will signal all tasks to shutdown and will wait for at most duration for all spawned tasks to terminate. If timeout elapses before all tasks are dropped, the function returns and outstanding tasks are potentially leaked.

Examples
use tokio::runtime::Runtime;
use tokio::task;

use std::thread;
use std::time::Duration;

fn main() {
   let runtime = Runtime::new().unwrap();

   runtime.block_on(async move {
       task::spawn_blocking(move || {
           thread::sleep(Duration::from_secs(10_000));
       });
   });

   runtime.shutdown_timeout(Duration::from_millis(100));
}
source

pub fn shutdown_background(self)

Shuts down the runtime, without waiting for any spawned tasks to shutdown.

This can be useful if you want to drop a runtime from within another runtime. Normally, dropping a runtime will block indefinitely for spawned blocking tasks to complete, which would normally not be permitted within an asynchronous context. By calling shutdown_background(), you can drop the runtime from such a context.

Note however, that because we do not wait for any blocking tasks to complete, this may result in a resource leak (in that any blocking tasks are still running until they return.

This function is equivalent to calling shutdown_timeout(Duration::from_nanos(0)).

use tokio::runtime::Runtime;

fn main() {
   let runtime = Runtime::new().unwrap();

   runtime.block_on(async move {
       let inner_runtime = Runtime::new().unwrap();
       // ...
       inner_runtime.shutdown_background();
   });
}

Trait Implementations§

source§

impl Debug for Runtime

source§

fn fmt(&self, f: &mut Formatter<'_>) -> Result

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more
source§

impl Drop for Runtime

source§

fn drop(&mut self)

Executes the destructor for this type. Read more

Auto Trait Implementations§

Blanket Implementations§

source§

impl<T> Any for Twhere
    T: 'static + ?Sized,

source§

fn type_id(&self) -> TypeId

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more
source§

impl<T> Borrow<T> for Twhere
    T: ?Sized,

const: unstable · source§

fn borrow(&self) -> &T

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
source§

impl<T> BorrowMut<T> for Twhere
    T: ?Sized,

const: unstable · source§

fn borrow_mut(&mut self) -> &mut T

Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
source§

impl<T> From<T> for T

const: unstable · source§

fn from(t: T) -> T

Returns the argument unchanged.

source§

impl<T, U> Into<U> for Twhere
    U: From<T>,

const: unstable · source§

fn into(self) -> U

Calls U::from(self).

That is, this conversion is whatever the implementation of From<T> for U chooses to do.

source§

impl<T, U> TryFrom<U> for Twhere
    U: Into<T>,

§

type Error = Infallible

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
const: unstable · source§

fn try_from(value: U) -> Result<T, <T as TryFrom<U>>::Error>

Performs the conversion.
source§

impl<T, U> TryInto<U> for Twhere
    U: TryFrom<T>,

§

type Error = <U as TryFrom<T>>::Error

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
const: unstable · source§

fn try_into(self) -> Result<U, <U as TryFrom<T>>::Error>

Performs the conversion.